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But a good known to extend to the most possible will by that very fact be recognised as the greatest. Hence benevolent affections will conduce to the preservation of man or animal, as the case may be. A fourth argument is “that animals are incited to endeavour the propagation of their 69 See pp. 114, 115. ™See p. 173. 77 See p. 168. 72 See pp. 122 et seq. ” 73 The details of the argument are not particularly convincing. H ie important point is: Cum­ berland argues that altruism first appears as sexual love and the parental instinct to protect offspring.

Such details are merely preliminary, and we shall now ask what is meant by “Right Reason,” an expression which is constantly recurring in the treatise. Hobbes had practically denied that there was any such faculty in man. In Cumber­ land’s system, on the other hand, Right Reason plays an im­ portant, if a somewhat Protean part. , p. 94. Also cf. Dr. Frank E. Spaulding’s Richard Cumberland als Begriinder der englischen Ethik, p. 26, There is an immense amount of physiological data in the treatise, and it is sometimes hard to tell whether Cumberland is speaking in terms of psychology or of physiology.

Before considering this question as to the meaning and scope of Right Reason, let us notice two defini­ tions, and also the author’s brief inventory of the powers of the mind. *2 However, he sometimes refers to sub-human manifestations of sympathy. As regards the mind, he says: “To the mind we ascribe Understanding and Will; to the Understanding we re­ duce Apprehending, Comparing, Judging, Reasoning, a Meth­ odical Disposition, and the Memory of all these things, and of the objects about which they are conversant.

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A history of English Utilitarianism by Ernest Albee


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